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What is Fuel Injection?
Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. It has become the primary system used in automotive engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s.
A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle: gasoline (petrol), Autogas (LPG, also known as propane), ethanol, methanol, methane (natural gas), hydrogen or diesel. The majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with multiple different fuels. For gasoline engines, carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel before the widespread use of fuel injection. However, a wide variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.
The primary functional difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on low pressure created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream.
The fuel injector is only a nozzle and a valve: the power to inject the fuel comes from farther back in the fuel supply, from a pump or a pressure container.
What is an Injection Pump ?
An Injection Pump is the device that pumps fuel into the cylinders of a diesel engine or less typically, a gasoline engine. Traditionally, the pump is driven indirectly from the crankshaft by gears, chains or a toothed belt (often the timing belt) that also drives the camshaft on overhead-cam engines ( OHC ). It rotates at half crankshaft speed in a conventional four-stroke engine. Its timing is such that the fuel is injected only very slightly before top dead-centre of that cylinder's compression stroke. It is also common for the pump belt on gasoline engines to be driven directly from the camshaft.
Because of the need for positive injection into a very high-pressure environment, the pump develops great pressure—typically 15,000 psi (100 MPa) or more on newer systems. This is a good reason to take great care when working on diesel systems; escaping fuel at this sort of pressure can easily penetrate skin and clothes, and be injected into body tissues with serious consequences.
Earlier diesel pumps used an in-line layout with a series of cam-operated injection cylinders in a line, rather like a miniature inline engine. The pistons have a constant stroke volume, and injection volume (ie, throttling) is controlled by rotating the cylinders against a cut-off port that aligns with a helical slot in the cylinder. When all the cylinders are rotated at once, they simultaneously vary their injection volume to produce more or less power from the engine. Inline pumps still find favour on large multi-cylinder engines such as those on trucks, construction plant, static engines and agricultural vehicles.
For use on cars and light trucks, the rotary pump or distributor pump was developed. It uses a single injection cylinder driven from an axial cam plate, which injects into the individual fuel lines via a rotary distribution valve. Later incarnations such as the Bosch VE pump vary the injection timing with crank speed to allow greater power at high crank speeds, and smoother, more economical running at slower revs. Some VE variants have a pressure-based system that allows the injection volume to increase over normal to allow a turbocharger or supercharger equipped engine to develop more power under boost conditions.
All injection pumps incorporate a governor to cut fuel supply if the crank speed endangers the engine - the heavy moving parts of diesel engines do not tolerate overspeeding well, and catastrophic damage can occur if they are over-revved.
Mechanical pumps are gradually being phased out in order to comply with international emissions directives, and to increase performance and economy. Alternatives include common rail diesel systems and electronic unit direct injection systems. These allow for higher pressures to be developed, and for much finer control of injection volumes compared to mechanical systems.
Look for suppliers of injection pumps who have strong industry backgrounds Look for suppliers of injection pumps who have built up a strong reputation in the industry. Consider how long they have been in business. Look at their client list. Ask for referrals. Buy injection pumps from quality manufacturers and suppliers Look for injection pumps manufacturers and injection pumps suppliers with histories of quality product and services. Compare industries that use injection pumps Injection pumps can be put to a variety of uses. Examine what your need is compared to others, and consider speaking to someone else in your field about who they recommend. Purchase remanufactured injection pumps for greater savings Buy rebuilt injection pumps or replacement injector pumps parts for a fraction of the cost of purchasing injection pump pieces.
Guide to Injection Pumps Injection pumps keep your diesel and other fluids moving
When searching for injection pumps distributors, seek ones who strive for the development of advanced diesel technology. You want an injection pumps supplier whose products meet emissions standards while at the same time enhance not only your fuel economy but also your performance. Fuel costs are rising, and making the most of your fuel is a cost saving measure.
To find the right injection pumps distributors for your business:
1. Decide on your specific need.
2. Look at your budget.
3. Opt for expert installation unless you have experience with injection pumps.
Action Steps The best contacts and resources to help you get it done
I recommend: First Diesel Injection Ltd. tests and rebuilds fuel injection equipment of all types. They can help you with injectors, injection pumps, turbochargers, superchargers, gas injectors and electronic pumps and injectors. Sidewinder Pumps, Inc., out of Lafayette, LA, is one place where you can find metering pumps.
I recommend: CAT PUMPS, who has been in operation since 1968, offers you triplex injection oilfield pumps. Their pumps can give you a constant head pressure for injection, transfer and processing. They can also operate under continuous-duty conditions. CAT PUMPS are great for oil well stimulation, secondary recovery, wastewater re-injection, oil transfer, accumulator charging-blow-off prevention, chemical injection-glycol-methanol pipe and vessel testing. Delphi helps you meet U.S. Tier II emissions standards.
I recommend: Nova-Tech International, Inc. offers you metering pumps, dosing, chemical injection pumps and positive displacement pumps. They also sell replacement parts and accessories for a variety of brands including: Pulsafeeder, Chem-Tech, Mec-O-Matic, Pulsatron and OMNI pumps. Their products are used for water treatment, transportation, food & beverage, food processing, industrial applications (processing of water and wastewater), chemical processing, pulp & paper, electronics & electrical, construction & mining, machinery, cars wash and other utilities. Diesel Care and Performance sells Chevrolet fuel systems including diesel injection pumps.
I recommend: Superior Parts of New England, Inc. sells remanufactured fuel injection pumps, injectors and turbochargers. Their service technicians factory authorized. Thoroughbred Diesel sells OEM stock replacement parts for your Dodge Cummins, Ford Powerstroke, or GM Duramax diesel pickup truck. Purchasing a replacement part from Thoroughbred Diesel can be a cheaper alternative than buying direct from the manufacturer. They offer stock replacement parts for turbos, injectors, injection pumps, diesel fuel filters, engine parts and fuel additives, and more. Their remanufactured parts come from trusted names such as: Alliant, Bosch, Delphi, Industrial Injection and Stanadyne. They have 1500 remanufactured injection pumps ready to be exchanged.
Tips & Tactics Helpful advice for making the most of this Guide
Look for suppliers of injection pumps who have strong industry backgrounds Look for suppliers of injection pumps who have built up a strong reputation in the industry. Consider how long they have been in business. Look at their client list. Ask for referrals.
Buy injection pumps from quality manufacturers and suppliers Look for injection pumps manufacturers and injection pumps suppliers with histories of quality product and services.
Compare industries that use injection pumps Injection pumps can be put to a variety of uses. Examine what your need is compared to others, and consider speaking to someone else in your field about who they recommend.
Purchase remanufactured injection pumps for greater savings Buy rebuilt injection pumps or replacement injector pumps parts for a fraction of the cost of purchasing injection pump pieces.